Mosquitoes capable of carrying Zika virus may have colony in OntarioAug232017

  • The insects tested negative for both the Zika and West Nile virus
  • Species can carry Dengue fever

From CBC.ca:

A mosquito species capable of transmitting the Zika virus and other tropical diseases may have established a colony in southwestern Ontario, a development that could mean changes for Canadian healthcare providers.

Two adult Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, also known as the Asian tiger mosquito, were recently trapped in Windsor-Essex, following the 17 found last year, according to the area’s health unit.

Staff are not sure how the insects arrived in Ontario, but the region’s acting medical officer of health said evidence suggests the mosquitoes may have hatched in the Windsor area.

“Seeing them this early, we’re more concerned about an established population here,” said Dr. Wajid Ahmed, explaining that last year the insects were found in mid-October. “This time around it’s mid-August, which is more suggestive that they just became adults here in this region.”

It’s also possible the insects were carried from the United States in a shipping container or by other cross-border traffic.

The two mosquitoes tested negative for both the Zika and West Nile virus, just like those captured in Windsor-Essex last year.

Ahmed said climate change bringing warmer temperatures to Windsor might help explain why mosquitoes are moving north.

“Once they establish themselves here it would be more difficult to control and maybe we’ll see some diseases we haven’t seen before,” he said, adding the species can also transmit dengue fever and chikungunya — both of which can cause fevers, and headaches along with muscle and joint pain.

“Our immune systems are not prepared for that,” Ahmed added. “Some of these tropical symptoms are way behind on our list of differential diagnosis so I think that would require some understanding and education from the healthcare provider perspective that these are also a possibility now.”

Read the full article on http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/windsor/evidence-shows-mosquitoes-capable-of-carrying-zika-virus-may-have-colony-in-ontario-1.4249459

MORE

BCCDC Influenza Update: Sporadic Flu Detections in BCAug182017

Sporadic influenza activity has been detected in BC and elsewhere in Canada this summer, with some provinces reporting summer outbreaks in long-term care facilities. Influenza A(H3N2) had been the predominant subtype during this period.

In the southern hemisphere where they are in the midst of their winter seasonal epidemic, influenza activity has increased or peaked in most countries in recent weeks. In Australia and New Zealand, influenza activity predominately due to A(H3N2) is increasing with lesser co-circulation of B(Yamagata) viruses. In some Southeast Asian countries, high levels of influenza activity continue to be reported, including in Myanmar where A(H1N1)pdm09 is predominating and in Southern China and Hong Kong where a severe summer influenza epidemic due to A(H3N2) is underway.

As in previous years, the US CDC has reported sporadic human cases of novel influenza A viruses associated with exposure to swine at agriculture fairs, including human cases of A(H1N2)v (the first reported in 2017) and A(H3N2)v, this summer.

Sporadic detections of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) associated with a hospital cluster in Saudi Arabia and avian influenza A(H7N9) in China were also reported during this period.

BC Influenza Surveillance Bulletins are available from the BCCDC website.

Please remember to notify BCCDC of any ILI outbreak occurring in your region by sending an e-mail to ilioutbreak@bccdc.ca. A copy of the current outbreak report form can be downloaded here.

Feel free to contact the BCCDC Influenza & Emerging Respiratory Pathogens Team with any questions or concerns.

MORE

Canadian scientists find new way to attack antibiotic-resistant lung infectionsAug072017

Excerpted from CBC.ca

Enzymes used to break down the walls built by microbes

Canadian scientists have discovered a possible way to break through the defences of some antibiotic-resistant respiratory infections. It’s hoped that the findings could someday benefit people with cystic fibrosis and other chronic lung diseases who are at greater risk of infections.

The research looked at biofilms, which are one of the main causes of hospital-acquired infections. Microbes form biofilms on surfaces like the insides of our lungs, heart valves and artificial hips. In fact, implanted medical devices could account for up to 70 per cent of hospital-related infections, according to previous research.

For doctors and scientists, biofilms have been a tough nut to crack. That’s because some bacteria and fungi secrete a matrix of sugar molecules to form the biofilm armour — a physical and chemical barrier to keep antibiotics and our immune cells out so they don’t have a chance to kill the pathogens.

Think of how humans shifted from life as hunter gatherers to building up walls around their town to protect themselves from invaders, said Sheppard, a clinician-scientist at the Research Institute at McGill University Health Centre in Montreal. Some bacteria and fungi build a biofilm matrix, a type of city wall to defend their communities. 

Sheppard and Howell were the lead authors of a study published in the journal of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in June. They focused on two microbes that are responsible for lung infections: Aspergillus fungi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria.

In test tube experiments, the researchers discovered that the microbes use enzyme “saws” to cut and then build the walls of their biofilm homes out of uniform pieces, like two-by-four pieces of lumber.

They were able to turn the microbe’s defence against itself, using its machinery to engineer the enzymes and control where the cuts were made. Instead of small, uniform wooden boards, the biofilms were cut into the equivalent of 10-foot-long pieces. The microbes weren’t able to use those unwieldy pieces to repair the gaping holes scientists inflicted on the biofilm walls.

“We made the uncontrolled versions, which cut willy-nilly and destroy the biofilm,” Sheppard said. “Lo and behold the enzymes worked in an animal model,” Sheppard said. Specifically, it was a lung infection model of Aspergillus fungus in mice.

It took 10 years of basic laboratory research to prove it was the enzymes at work. They also discovered that both the fungi and bacteria used the same tool, which was active across the two species.

Howell, a senior scientist at SickKids and a professor of molecular biology at the University of Toronto, said when they realized they understood the mechanics well enough to apply the approach more broadly, “it was like one of those light bulb moments” in science.

The discovery could be applied therapeutically, said Howell, in the form of biofilm-busting enzyme therapy for people with cystic fibrosis and other chronic lung diseases. In the case of CF lungs, Howell said the underlining genetic defect prevents cilia, or small hairs on the surface of the airway, from doing their job of beating together to move mucus up and out of the lung.

The airways in people with CF also provide an ideal environment for some bacterial infections to take hold.

Whether the engineered enzymes work the same in humans as in mice, without toxic effects, remains to be seen. Sheppard estimates the first studies in people are at least five years away.

Read the full article, and watch the video, on CBC.ca

MORE

Stethoscope hygiene failures can lead to patient infectionsJul212017

Excerpted from: Outbreak News Today

You can lead a doctor to disinfection, but how do you get them to clean…or wipe ….or swab a stethoscope?

That’s the question raised by a new quality improvement project published in the July issue of the American Journal of Infection Control, the official journal of the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC).

It is the latest report to find that healthcare providers rarely perform stethoscope hygiene between patient encounters, despite its importance for infection prevention. Infection control guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention state that re-usable medical equipment, such as stethoscopes, must undergo disinfection between patients.

“Stethoscopes are used repeatedly throughout the day and become contaminated after each patient exposure, so they must be treated as potential vectors of transmission,” said Linda Greene, RN, MPS, CIC, FAPIC, 2017 president of APIC. “Failing to disinfect stethoscopes could constitute a serious patient safety issue similar to ignoring hand hygiene.”

The report describes a quality improvement pilot project in which the authors observed stethoscope hygiene (alcohol swabs, alcohol gel, or disinfectant wipes) at the start of a four-week rotation for medical students, resident physicians, and attending physicians at a tertiary care academic teaching hospital. The baseline observation of stethoscope hygiene among staff found zero occurrences. The project also looked at hand hygiene, which can include alcohol gel or soap and water.

Read the full media article on Outbreak News Today

Read the journal paper Can education influence stethoscope hygiene? in the American Journal of Infection Control

MORE